#1 Less than Human

Bio: My name is Alex Kay and I am a junior at Butler University. Over the course of this past semester, my peers and I have been researching late 19th to early 20th century prisoners who received life sentences in the state of Indiana. I found that one of the men I researched, Samuel Price, could form the basis for my episode based on the nature of his crime and the motivations behind it. I enjoyed conducting the research to form this episode to our podcast series, and while my episode is mainly a somber one, I believe that it fits in well with the other episodes and sets a good tone as the first episode of the series. Thanks for listening.

Description of podcast: This episode in the podcast series, Forgotten: Life Histories of Indiana Prisoners is about racially motivated crime that took place in post-reconstruction America. The episode highlights the murder of African American man Kent Brown as an example of the extra-judicial killings that occurred during the time period. Lynchings were common occurrences, meant to terrorize black families and communities, to keep them subservient and terrified.
Racially-motivated crime, while not necessarily lynching, has continued up into the present day. People like Michael Brown, Tamir Rice, Eric Garner, Brandon Mclleland, Marlene Pinnock, and so many more have been subject to racially motivated acts of violence, whether it be at the hands of the police, a few citizens, or a lone individual. This episode intends to highlight the general atmosphere surrounding racially motivated crime back then and now.

Snapshot of crowd at a lynching. Image from EJI https://eji.org/thomas-shipp-and-abram-smith-indiana

– Bosman, Julie, and Joseph Goldstein. “Timeline for a Body: 4 Hours in the Middle of a Ferguson Street.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 23 Aug. 2014
– Hill, Karlos K. Beyond the Rope: The Impact of Lynching on Black Culture and Memory.
– Life Prisoners’ Statements: Indiana State Prison North, Michigan City. Volume 1.
– Mitchell, Dawn, and Maureen C. Gilmer. “Last-Known Lynching in Indiana Included in National Memorial for Peace and Justice.” Indianapolis Star, IndyStar, 26 Apr. 2018.
– “Price Wants Pardon After Twenty Years” The Indianapolis Morning Star. Thursday, September 29, 1904.
– “Theodore Shockney.” Dearborn County Ingenweb Project, www.ingenweb.org/inrandolph/Biographies/ShockneyT.htm. Cambridge University Press, 2016.
– “What Happened in Ferguson?” The New York Times, The New York Times, 13 Aug. 2014
– Rushdy, Ashraf H. A. The End of American Lynching. Rutgers University Press, 2012.

-Sophocles. Antigone.

#2 School to Prison Pipeline: Why Education Matters


My name is MaryKatherine and I am a student at Butler University. I am studying history and Secondary education. Throughout this class we have looked in depth into the criminal justice system and how it affects the lives of those who are a part of the system. This project gave me the opportunity to study the histories of Indiana prisoners and to tell their stories to a larger audience.

Description of the Podcast

This episode of the podcast “Forgotten: Life Histories of Indiana Prisoners” details the relationship between education and the criminal justice system. I include the prisoner life histories of two inmates from the late 1800s who were incarcerated in Indiana. These two men, Anthony McDougal and William Benson, were both tried and convicted for murder. I included these personal history accounts so that their stories can be told and will no longer be forgotten. The episode places the stories of these men into context by describing both the prison system and the education system during the late 19th century.

The podcast also discusses the connection between education and crime in the present day. In this episode I define the school-to-prison pipeline and explain how it negatively affects children; especially how it affects children of color and those from poor families. I do so by diving into reasons why children from low-income families may not have access to education in the same way those of a higher socioeconomic status might. I also discuss research that explores the correlation between low education rates and higher rates of crime. The segment details the rights and opportunities that are taken away once someone becomes incarcerated, and how their life is altered upon release. Finally, I discuss the underlying factor of race in this relationship between education and crime, and how implicit racist policies and actions put people of color at a disadvantage within both the educational and criminal justice systems.

Sources (MLA)

Alexander, Michelle, and Cornel West. The New Jim Crow. New York, The New Press, 2012.

Al-Khatib, Talal. “Doing Time: A History of US Prisons.” Seeker, 21 July 2015, https://www.seeker.com/doing-time-a-history-of-us-prisons-1770031128.html. Accessed 12 Nov. 2018.

BBC Sound Effects. BBC, 2018, http://bbcsfx.acropolis.org.uk. Accessed 7 Dec. 2018.

Boone, Richard G., A.M., Ph D. A History of Education in Indiana. New York, D. Appleton and Company, 1892, https://books.google.com/books?id=078KAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Accessed 12 Nov. 2018.

“Crime Rates Linked to Educational Attainment, 2013 Alliance Report Finds.” Alliance for Excellent Education, 12 Sept. 2013, https://all4ed.org/press/crime-rates-linked-to-educational-attainment-new-alliance-report-finds/. Accessed 13 Nov. 2018.

Keivon, James. “The Demon in the Weeds.” Daily News, 6 Feb. 2017, https://www.nydailynews.com/news/crime/king-demanding-justice-karina-vetrano-doesn-require-racism-article-1.2965543. Accessed 7 Dec. 2018.

NCES Blog Editor. “Education and Training Opportunities in America’s Prisons.” NCES Blog: National Center for Education Statistics, 11 Jan. 2017, Institute of Education Sciences, https://nces.ed.gov/blogs/nces/2017/01/11/default. Accessed 5 Dec. 2018.

Taylor, John. “African-American Education in Indiana.” Accessed 13 Nov. 2018.

“The Trial of Anthony McDougal, Charged with Murder, in Progress at New Albany—The Testimony Summarized.” The Courier-Journal [Louisville, KY], 04 Dec. 1883, p. 6 https://www.newspapers.com/clip/17644030/trial_of_anthony_mcdougal_04_dec/. Accessed Nov. 2018.

Welch, Kelly. “School to Prison Pipeline.” The Encyclopedia of Juvenile Delinquency and Justice, 20 Nov. 2017, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/9781118524275.ejdj0102. Accessed 12 Nov. 2018.

Yan-Key, Dee. “Dark Days.” Years and years ago, http://freemusicarchive.org/music/Dee_Yan-Key/years_and_years_ago/10–Dee_Yan-Key-Dark_Days  

Prisoner life histories: William Benson #366 and Anthony McDougal #16

#3 Taking a Shot for American Sporting Thirst


Marissa and Sophia are both students at Butler University. Marissa is studying Sociology with specialization in Social Work and Social Policy. Sophia is studying Anthropology and Religion. In the history class they took part in this past semester there was a focus on the prison industrial complex system and the injustice that came as a result of it. As a project for this class, all the students had to research Hoosier prisoners from the late 19th and early 20th century and what came of their lives due to the prison system.

Description of Podcast

In this episode of ““Forgotten: Life Histories of Indian Prisoners” there is a detailed analysis of three main issues; gun violence, alcoholism, and sporting man culture. By examining these key issues, we can have a better understanding of what goes on behind the act of committing a crime, in today’s time and back 150 years ago when the prisoners that were researched for this class committed their crimes.

The issue of gun violence has been subjected to criticism since the birth of the US nation. Ever since the concept of “the right to bear arms” became a constitutional law there has been a debate over who is permitted to and not to mention the controversy over when is the appropriate time to actually use the gun. When it comes to the topics of alcohol and alcoholism there needs to be a review of the alcohol laws that the state of Indiana has put in place over the course of history along with national laws pertaining to alcohol. The last topic that will be talked about in this episode is the subject of sporting man culture. As it will be described in the podcast, sporting man culture revolves around men living hedonistic lifestyles in the 19th century.

Sources (MLA)

Alexander, Michelle, and Cornel West. The New Jim Crow. New York, The New Press, 2012.

Burns, Ken and Lynn Novick, directors. Roots of ProhibitionPBS, Public Broadcasting Service, www.pbs.org/kenburns/prohibition/.

Chalfant, Harry M. “The Anti-Saloon League-Why and What?” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 109, 1923, pp. 279–283. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/1015015.

Clark, Perry R. Barred Progress: Indiana Prison Reform, 1880-1920. Diss. 2008.

Davis, Angela Y. Are prisons obsolete?. Seven Stories Press, 2011.

Foucault, Michel. “Illegalities and Delinquency”. Discipline And Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Pantheon Books, New York, pp. 226-233.

Lobel, Cindy R. Urban appetites: Food and culture in nineteenth-century New York. University of Chicago Press, 2014.

Madison, James H. Hoosiers: a New History of Indiana. Indiana University Press, 2016.

Hedeen, Jane. “The Road to Prohibition in Indiana.” Prohibition, Indiana Historical Society , 2011, indianahistory.org/wp-content/uploads/1d7d71dfbb39529a736fdba5279a5ba9.pdf.

Spitzer, Robert J. “Gun law history in the United States and Second Amendment rights.” Law & Contemp. Probs. 80 (2017): 55.

#4 Drunken Madness


My name is Henry and I am currently a junior at Butler University where I am studying Middle/Secondary Education as well as Special Education.  In this articular class we studied effects of the prison industrial system that has developed here in the United States over the past centuries.  We chose to focus on the Hoosier stories that may have went untold.

Description of Podcast:

In this episode of “Forgotten: Life Stories of Indiana Prisoners,” I focus on the relationship that the people of Indiana had with alcohol in the late 19th century in comparison to today’s drinking scene.  I chose to focus on tow particular stories that I found to exemplify what was taking place during this time.  Two men, Frank Siple and Edward Taylor found themselves in prison for murders they both claim not to have committed.

I have chosen to examine their situation and even consider what it may have looked like if alcohol were absent.  I think you’ll find that things may have went down very differently had there been no alcohol involved.  It also addresses the regularity and impact alcohol usage had on folks in Indiana in the late 19th century.


“2018 Alcoholism Statistics You Need to Know.” Talbott Recovery, Patti Richards, 23 Oct. 2018, talbottcampus.com/alcoholism-statistics/.

“Alcohol Facts and Statistics.” National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Aug. 2018, www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol-consumption/alcohol-facts-and-statistics.

“CDC – Data and Maps – Alcohol.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, IN.gov, www.cdc.gov/alcohol/data-stats.htm.

Dee Yan-Key. “Dark Days.” 28 Oct. 2018, freemusicarchive.org/music/Dee_Yan-Key/years_and_years_ago/10–Dee_Yan-Key-Dark_Days.

“Header.” DNR: Aquatic Invasive Species – Fish and Vertebrates, IN.gov, 2018, www.in.gov/iara/2810.htm.

“Newspapers.com Search.” Newspapers.com, The Philadelphia Inquirer, www.newspapers.com/search/#query=Edward Taylor&dr_year=1831-1901&p_place=IN

“Frank Siple Goes to Prison for the Murder of Franklin. P. Smith.” Newspapers.com, The Jasper Weekly Corrier, www.newspapers.com/image/72148964/?terms=frank siple.

#5 Sounds of Silence: Violence in the Physical and the Archives


My name is Grant Harris and I am a senior at Butler University. I have been studying history for the last four years. In the past I have done research and written papers on gender dynamics in different time periods and situations. Previously I have examined gender dynamics in rural Missouri during the Civil War as well as the Black Panther Party. For this class I have moved to now look at late 1800s and early 1900s Indiana and the gender structures that exist.

Description of Podcast

This episode examines two crimes that we came across throughout the class. We look at Cyrus Brown’s murder of his wife Amanda Brown and the murder E.E Gray committed against a woman he was having an affair with, Lizzie Skinner. The purpose for looking at these two cases is to further an understanding of the gender dynamics that existed in late 1800s and early 1900s Indiana.

What was found through the research and studying of these cases along with other examples was an overwhelming lack of representation of women in the records and this in some ways silenced them from history. The archives act as a complicated and extremely powerful space that can at times have aspects of violence to it. In this episode I argue that women in this time and place were silenced by the physical violence they experienced but also silenced in the records.

Further, when looking at the way the crimes were written about, either in the newspapers or from the perspective of the man who committed the crime it lends itself to a deeper understanding of the gender dynamics. In the podcast I explore those themes and relate them to present day issues.

Sources [MLA]

“Brown Sentenced to Hang.” Hope Republican 21 December 1893. Hoosier State Chronicles.

“New Trial for Cyrus Brown.” Indianapolis News 4 April 1894. Hoosier State Chronicles.

“Murderer Brown’s Burial Place.” Daily Geencastle Banner and Times 5 March 1894. Hoosier State Chronicles.

“The News Condensed.” The Greencastel Democrat 23 February 1895. Hoosier State Chronicles.

“Local Brevities.” Marshall County Independent 6 January 1899. Hoosier State Chronicles.

“Bloomfield’s Tragedy.” Bloomington Press 3 January 1899. Hoosier State Chronicles.

“Dr. E.E Gray Murderer.” The Indianapolis Journal 6 May 1899. Newspaper.com

“Threaten to Lynch a Doctor.” Logansport Pharos-Tribune 31 Dec 1898. Newspaper.com

“Dr. Gray’s Defense.” The Bremen Enquirer 19 May 1899. Newspaper.com

“Gets Life Sentence.” The Tribune 22 May 1899. Newspaper.com

“Dr. Gray Murder Trial.” Princeton Clarion-Leader 6 May 1899. Newspaper.com

“The Evidence.” The Republic 13 December 1893. Newspaper.com  

“Pardon One Man Refuse Another.” The Evening Republic 12 July 1910. Newspaper.com

“The Life of Cyrus Brown in the Hands of Twelve of His Countrymen.” The Republic 15 Dec 1893. Newspaper.com

Ritchie, Andrea J. Invisible No More: Police Violence Against Black Women and Women of Color. Bacon Press. 2017.

Dee Yan-Key. “Dark Days.” 28 Oct. 2018,

#6 Anything but Evidence: Circumstance as Proof


My name is Sarah and I am a student at Butler University. I am studying Middle/Secondary Education and Spanish. In this class, I have studied various Hoosier prisoners and the effects of the prison industrial system in the United States throughout history.

Description of Podcast

This episode focuses on the problems with convicting innocent people, and relying or circumstantial evidence to put a person behind bars. In this episode, the two prisoners discussed are Joseph W. Plew of the late 1800s and early 1900s, and Kevin Cooper  of present day. Both men were convicted of crimes that they claimed to be innocent of, fought/are still fighting for their freedom. This podcast episode also lays out how these convictions can affect not only those sentenced, but anyone involved in the case, along with the problems within the U.S. justice system that allow for these things to happen.

Joseph Plew was convicted of the murder of Henry Durham and his child, and was accused of also attacking Mrs. Durham. He spent almost 50 years in prison before being released. There is little evidence in the case, and while Plew was found guilty and identified as such during the trial, he was later thought of to be innocent.

Kevin Cooper has been sitting on death row for 30 years on four counts of murder, and one count of attempted murder. While Cooper has been convicted of crimes in the past, he remains stern in the fact that he is innocent of the murders. The evidence presented in court during the trial in the 1980s has since been found to be planted and tampered with. Cooper is still awaiting further DNA testing that could prove his innocence.

Sources: (MLA)

Alexander, Michelle. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. The New Press, 2012.

Barbaro, Michael. “Listen to ‘The Daily’: Was Kevin Cooper Framed for Murder?” The New York Times, The New York Times, 30 May 2018, www.nytimes.com/2018/05/30/podcasts/the-daily/kevin-cooper-death-row.html.

Barone, Emily. “Exonerations: Falsely Accused Freed at Highest Rates.” Time.com, Time, time.com/wrongly-convicted/.

BBC Sound Effects Archive Resource • Research & Education Space, BBC, bbcsfx.acropolis.org.uk/.

Dee Yan-Key. “Dark Days.” 28 Oct. 2018, freemusicarchive.org/music/Dee_Yan-Key/years_and_years_ago/10–Dee_Yan-Key-Dark_Days.

DeLucco, Mary Kate. “Voices: Kevin Cooper.” Death Penalty Focus, 31 May 2018, deathpenalty.org/blog/voices-kevin-cooper/.

“DNA Exonerations in the United States.” Innocence Project, www.innocenceproject.org/dna-exonerations-in-the-united-states/.

Galliani, Michelle, et al. “’They Framed Me’: On Death Row for Decades, Kevin Cooper Pushes for New DNA Tests in Chino Hills Murders.” Los Angeles Times, 8 July 2018, www.innocenceproject.org/dna-exonerations-in-the-united-states/

Gross, Samuel R. “The Staggering Number of Wrongful Convictions in America.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 24 July 2015, www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/the-cost-of-convicting-the-innocent/2015/07/24/260fc3a2-1aae-11e5-93b7-5eddc056ad8a_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.6c910c57529b.

“Kevin Cooper (Prisoner).” Wikepedia, 10 Nov. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kevin_Cooper_(prisoner)#Chino_Hills_murders_and_arrest.

“Joseph Plew The Murderer.” Newspapers.com, The Philadelphia Inquirer, 17 Feb. 1887, www.newspapers.com/clip/1324036/joseph_plew_the_murderer/.

“MANY ASK FOR CLEMENCY OF STATE PARDON BOARD.” Indianapolis Star (1907-1922), Jan 09 1911, p. 7. ProQuest. Web. 10 Dec. 2018 . https://search.proquest.com/docview/756430139?accountid=9807

Marx, Karl, and David F. Greenberg. “On Capital Punishment: Readings in Marxist Criminology.” Crime and Capitalism, Temple University Press, pp. 55–56.

“SEEK PAROLE FOR PLEW.” The Indianapolis Morning Star (1903-1907), Jul 27 1905, p. 5. ProQuest. Web. 10 Dec. 2018 . https://search.proquest.com/docview/751512745?accountid=9807

Special to The, Indianapolis S. “TRUSTY MAKES PLEA FOR PRISON RELEASE.” Indianapolis Star (1907-1922), Aug 08 1913, p. 4. ProQuest. Web. 10 Dec. 2018 . https://search.proquest.com/hnpindianapolisstarshell/docview/755704749/B72BF0ACCB04298PQ/1?accountid=9807

Prison Lifer Statement: Joseph W Plew, No. 30 (Indiana State Archives)

#7 A Century of Death Sentences


My name is Lydia and I am a student of Political Science and History with a specific interest in Criminal Justice. Throughout this course my colleagues and I uncovered forgotten stories of Indiana Prisoners and learned about how the Prison system has evolved and how it effects individuals in Indiana and elsewhere.

Description of Podcast

This episode is focused on the use of the Death Penalty in Indiana comparing the case of Anthony MacDougal in 1883 whose death sentence was commuted by the Indiana Supreme Court after the murder of his wife Mary Elisabeth MacDougal and the sentencing of Paula Cooper in 1985 for the murder of Ruth Pelke. Both of these cases were commuted to life or extended sentences by the Indiana Supreme Court but the reasoning behind the state’s failure to apply the death penalty could not be more different. This podcast compares the two perpetrators as well as the different conditions that determined the outcome of these two individuals lives with over a century between them. The societal conditions of the two cases as well as the ways that the death penalty has evolved in the past century are discussed to explore the way that the death penalty is used in Indiana.

Upon his initial sentencing, McDougal was given the death penalty, which in 1883 meant that he would be publicly hanged. Following an appeal to the Supreme Court McDougal had his death sentence commuted to life imprisonment, which is common in the state of Indiana, 97 Hoosiers have received a death sentence but according to public records the state has only executed 20 individuals. The commutation of Anthony McDougal’s sentence from Death to Life in Prison is poorly recorded, and his ability to write a Life Imprisonment statement following having his original sentence overturned helps to piece together the history of the death penalty in Indiana.

By July of 1989 the sentencing of Paula Cooper to the death penalty at just 15 years old made it to the Indiana Supreme Court, just as the case of Anthony MacDougall did 100 years prior, and yielded fairly similar results. First of all, the sentence for Paula Cooper was reduced from the death penalty to a 60 year sentence, this was based on precedents set in the US Supreme court in cases such as Thompson v. Oklahoma another case in which the death penalty was commuted due to the age of the perpetrator. This case also resulted in the change of the Indiana State Law regarding death penalty raising the age of eligibility for the death sentence from a 10 years of age to 16 years of age at the time of the offense. 

In 2015 although she had been released from the Indiana Women’s Prison after 28 years, Paula Cooper died by suicide  in her home citing her guilt in her suicide note. Although her sentence was commuted, her treatment before and during her time in prison still drove her to the point of suicide which is truly tragic.

Sources: (MLA)

Blanco, Juan Ignacio. “Paula R. Cooper.” Murderpedia, murderpedia.org/.
“Death Penalty Facts.” Indiana Government, 7 Aug. 2015, in.gov.

Dee Yan-Key. “Dark Days.” 28 Oct. 2018, freemusicarchive.org/music/Dee_Yan-Key/years_and_years_ago/10–Dee_Yan-Key-Dark_Days.

Disis, Jill, and Tim Evans. “Paula Cooper, Once Youngest Indiana Death Row Inmate, Found Dead.” Indianapolis Star, IndyStar, 14 Dec. 2016, indystar.com/.

Evans, Tim. “Ind. Woman Sentenced to Death at 16 to Leave Prison.” USA Today, Gannett Satellite Information Network, 17 June 2013, www.usatoday.com/.
“IC 35-50-2.” Indiana Government, in.gov.
“PAULA COOPER CASE RECORDS, 1986-1989.” Edited by Charles Latham, Indiana History, Indiana Historical Society – Manuscripts and Archives, indianahistory.org.
Press, Associated. “Pope Urges Clemency for Murderer, 18.” Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles Times, 27 Sept. 1987, articles.latimes.com.

#8 Pardons and Punishment


My name is Jem and I am a Science, Technology, and Society major. I have a personal interest in the Prison-Industrial Complex, which lead me to taking this course and learning about the evolution of punishment in Indiana and the United States.


In this final episode of Forgotten, the life histories of two Indiana men convicted of life sentences are examined. Both men, James Blackwood and Andrew Koerner, were found guilty of killing their wives in the 1880s. Their stories are analyzed along with the evolving nature of punishment and forgiveness in Indiana. I connect their stories to the present day and discuss how the stigma of being marked as a felon has changed. I also discuss the use of unclaimed bodies, such as that of prisoners, being used by medical schools and in scientific endeavors, with an update on what happens to unclaimed bodies today.

Works Cited

Bernstein, Nina. “New York City’s Medical Schools Will Stop Using Unclaimed Bodies.” The New York Times, 10 Aug 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/11/nyregion/new-york-citys-medical-schools-will-stop-using-unclaimed-bodies.html.

Bjornstad, William. “Thomas Riley Marshall.” Find A Grave, 1 Jan 2001. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/675/thomas-riley-marshall  

Horner, Frank Asbury. “The Revised Statutes of the State of Indiana.” Indiana Lawyers’ Co-operative Publishing Company, 1901. https://books.google.com/books?id=aUkwAQAAMAAJ&dq=indiana+prisoner+body+dissection&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Osgood, Robert L. “The Menace of the Feebleminded: George Bliss, Amos Butler, and the Indiana Committee on Mental Defectives.” Indiana Magazine of History, vol. 97, no. 4, 2001, pp. 253–277. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/27792339.
Pellegrino, Edmund D. “Medical Education.” Dictionary of American History, 2003, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/united-states-and-canada/us-history/medical-education.

“Andrew Koerner Granted Full Pardon By Governor.” The Indianapolis Star, 07 January 1912, pp. 39. https://www.newspapers.com/image/7421346/?terms=andrew%2Bkoerner.

“Body Given to College: Fate of Aged Life Convict.” The Indianapolis Star, 25 December 1905, pp. 5. https://www.newspapers.com/image/118631565/?terms=james%2Bblackwood.

“Found Guilty of Killing His Wife.” The Indiana State Sentinel, 19 January 1887, pp. 5. https://www.newspapers.com/image/174009565/?terms=james%2Bblackwood.

“Guilty of Murder, Says the Blackwood Jury.” The Indianapolis News, 29 January 1887, pp. 1. https://www.newspapers.com/image/34510609/?terms=james%2Bblackwood.

“Imprisonment for Life.” The Indianapolis News, 20 November 1884, pp. 4. https://www.newspapers.com/image/34616109/?terms=andrew%2Bkoerner.

“Tells of 25 Years in Prison: Koerner Begs for Pardon.” The Indianapolis Star, 29 June 1911, p. 5.https://www.newspapers.com/image/6712718/

“The Blackwood Wife Murder.” The Indianapolis News, 26 January 1887, pp. 1.https://www.newspapers.com/image/34510597/?terms=james%2Bblackwood.

“The Blackwood Wife Murder Trial.” The Indianapolis Journal, 25 January 1887, pp. 2.https://www.newspapers.com/image/466032168/?terms=james%2Bblackwood.